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 1. Paraconsistent Logic! (A Reply To Slater) Paraconsistent logic is the study of logics in which there are some theories embodying contradictions but which are not trivial, in particular in ahttp://www.sorites.org/Issue_17/beziau.htm

2. FLoC '02 - PCL
Paraconsistent logic offers a way out of this dilemma. They devised Paraconsistent logics to cater for inconsistent yet useful theories.
http://floc02.diku.dk/PCL/
 PCL 2002 Paraconsistent Computational Logic Copenhagen,ÃÂ Denmark, July 27th, 2002 Affiliated with ICLP 2002 This workshop deals with paraconsistency and its relationship to computational logic. The "ex falso quodlibet" rule of classical logic predicts that everything (i.e., nothing useful at all) would follow from the least bit of inconsistency. Although logical data consistency is a requirement of high priority in all of computing, 100% consistency is almost never given in practice. Taking logic seriously, this means nothing less than a complete mismatch of theory and practice, which in fact profoundly challenges the legitimacy of logical foundations of computing in general. Paraconsistent logic offers a way out of this dilemma. Unlike classical logic, paraconsistency is compatible with the fact that, despite ubiquitous inconsistencies, most computing systems in practice usually are able to provide meaningful information. It seems that this mismatch has never been bothering the community of computational logic to any significant degree. However, this phenomenon has been more attentively observed in the field of mathematical and philosophical logic. Around the middle of last century, Stanislaw Jaskowski and Newton da Costa have shown that inconsistency needs not be identified with ex falso quodlibet. They devised paraconsistent logics to cater for inconsistent yet useful theories. While the potential of paraconsistency to study, explain and improve the behavior of inconsistent systems has been widely recognized in philosophical circles, it has not (yet) enjoyed a broad-scale uptake in computational logic.

3. CLE E-Prints Of The Centre For Logic (CLE/UNICAMP) - Abstracts
On the structure of Paraconsistent extensions of Johansson s logic PS How to build your own Paraconsistent logic an introduction to the logics of
http://www.cle.unicamp.br/e-prints/abstract_16.html
 Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science (CLE) Main Page Articles Editorial Board Rules and Instructions ... Sites Pointing to CLE e-Prints CLE e-Prints eletronic version ISSN 1519-9681 CLE e-Prints printed version ISSN 1519-9614 Vol. 2(7), 2002 (Section Logic) Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic as part of the 14th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information Trento, Italy Proceedings of the Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic (WoPaLo) Organizers Ghent University, RUG, Belgium State University of Campinas, Unicamp, Brazil vegetal@cle.unicamp.br Diderik Batens Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science Ghent University, RUG, Belgium Diderik.Batens@rug.ac.be Walter A. Carnielli State University of Campinas, Unicamp, Brazil carniell@cle.unicamp.br A r t i c l e s Overture: paraconsistent logics PDF MARCOS State University of Campinas (Unicamp), Brazil Models for a paraconsistent set theory PDF Thierry LIBERT Service of Mathematical Logic, Free University of Brussels (ULB), Belgium PDF Heinrich WANSING Institute of Philosophy, Dresden University of Technology, Germany. On the structure of paraconsistent extensions of Johansson's logic PS Sergei P.

4. OtÃÂ¡vio Bueno
Paraconsistent Logic in a Historical Perspective (with Newton da Costa and . Paraconsistent logics and Paraconsistency (with Newton da Costa and DÃ©cio
http://homepage.mac.com/otaviobueno/index.htm
 OtÂ¡vio Bueno Welcome to OtÂ¡vio Bueno's web page. You will find here some information about him and his work. I am a Professor of Philosophy at the Department of Philosophy at the University of Miami , an extremely congenial and stimulating place to do philosophy. Most of my work focuses on philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of logic. I have been trying to develop an empiricist view about science that is compatible with a nominalist view about mathematics and logic. Not an easy task, but one that has led me to explore also a number of fascinating and interrelated issues in metaphysics, epistemology, and logic. Below you will find a list of some of my papers. Several of them are available on line . Just visit: http://homepage.mac.com/otaviobueno/OBueno/FileSharing17.html If you are interested in other papers that are not available there, just let me know. Here s how to contact me: OtÂ¡vio Bueno Department of Philosophy University of Miami Coral Gables, FL USA e-mail: otaviobueno AT mac DOT com phone: fax: This page is maintained by OtÂ¡vio Bueno (e-mail: otaviobueno 'AT' mac 'DOT' com).

 5. Atomic And Molecular Paraconsistent Logics. Alexander S. Karpenko Logic L satisfies the definitions (1) and (2). This is true for the most Paraconsistent logics, for example N.C.A. da Costa s logics Cn, relevant logics,http://logic.ru/en/node/135

6. IngentaConnect Yes, Virginia, There Really Are Paraconsistent Logics
B. H. Slater has argued that there cannot be any truly Paraconsistent logics, because it s always more plausible to suppose whatever ÂnegationÂ symbol is
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/logi/1999/00000028/00000005/00191230;j
var tcdacmd="dt";

7. Ralph Dumain: "The Autodidact Project": Web Guide: Philosophy Of Paraconsistency
2 (1999) Special Issue on Paraconsistent Logic and Paraconsistency . Paraconsistent logics and Paraconsistency Technical and Philosophical Developments.
http://www.autodidactproject.org/bib/paraconsistency.html
 Philosophy of Paraconsistency General resources on the web Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Dialetheism Paraconsistent Logic Inconsistent Mathematics Many-Valued Logic Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Propositional logic Logical Paradoxes Paraconsistent logic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia the philosophy of paraconsistency ... CLE e-Prints of the Centre for Logic (CLE/UNICAMP) - Editors Newsletters Paraconsistent Newsletters (check here for news: conferences, publications, links) The First World Congress on Paraconsistency II World Congress on Paraconsistency - May 08-12, 2000 WCP 3 - III world congress on paraconsistency , 28-31 July 2003 First World Congress and School on Universal Logic UNILOG'05 Handbook Second World Congress and School on Universal Logic , Xi'An, China, August 16-22, 2007 Sorites Logical Studies Journal, no. 2 (1999 Special Issue on Paraconsistent Logic and Paraconsistency The future of paraconsistent logic Reviews The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 9, Number 3, Sept. 2003.

8. PhilSci Archive - Remarks On The Applications Of Paraconsistent Logic To Physics
nonclassical logics, in particular Paraconsistent logic, in the foundational analysis of physical theories. As a case-study, we
http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001566/
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Remarks on the applications of paraconsistent logic to physics
physics. Full text available as:
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Abstract
In this paper we make some general remarks on the use of
non-classical logics, in particular paraconsistent logic, in the
foundational analysis of physical theories. As a case-study, we
complementarity' as a strict three-valued logic and also a
paraconsistent version of it. At the end, we sketch our own
approach to complementarity, which is based on a paraconsistent
logic termed 'paraclassical logic'. Keywords: Subjects: Specific Sciences Physics Quantum Mechanics ID Code: Deposited By: Deposited On: 13 January 2004
Send feedback to: philsci-archive@library.pitt.edu

 9. CAT.INIST Logique paraconsistante; Paraconsistent Logic; Logique et philosophie du langage; Philosophical logics and philosophyof language.http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=11820570

10. PubSLPR
Paraconsistent provability logic and rational epistemic agents 10. Fred Seymour Michael CONCEPTS AND TOOLS FOR Paraconsistent logics Con t
http://www.johnwoods.ca/RedSeries/PubSLPR.html
 Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning Publications Last Updated April 18, 2005. Home Advisory Board Contact Us Series Objectives ... Links Published Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference: The Turn Toward the Practical , volume 1 of Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning, Coherent Systems by Karl Schlechta, volume 2 of Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning . Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2004. In Press Forthcoming Handbook of Modal Logic, edited by Patrick Blackburn, Johan van Benthem and Frank Wolter. Modal logic was born almost a century ago. Originally a branch of philosophical logic, over the last thirty years it has attracted the interest of computer scientists, mathematicians, linguists, economists, and researchers in artificial intelligence, and nowadays it is one of the most widely used logical formalisms. But because of this diversity, work in modal logic tends to be scattered, with researchers from one field unaware of related work in another. A compact reference that outlines the shape of modern modal logic, from both theoretical and applied perspectives, would be of widespread interest. At present, no such reference exists. The Handbook of Modal Logic is intended to fill this gap. Leading researchers in modal logic and its applications will contribute articles which will collectively describe modern modal logic in theory and practice, from its more elementary aspects to its most advanced.

11. Ralph Dumain: "The Autodidact Project": Web Guide: Philosophy Of Paraconsistency
2 (1999) Special Issue on Paraconsistent Logic and Paraconsistency Paraconsistent logics and Paraconsistency. July 5, 2005. Decker, Hendrik.
http://www.jurid.net/lp/criticas/paraconsistency.html
 Philosophy of Paraconsistency General resources on the web Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Dialetheism Paraconsistent Logic Inconsistent Mathematics Many-Valued Logic Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Propositional logic Logical Paradoxes the philosophy of paraconsistency Graham Priest 's web site CLE e-Prints of the Centre for Logic (CLE/UNICAMP) - Editors Newsletters Paraconsistent Newsletters (check here for news: conferences, publications, links) The First World Congress on Paraconsistency II World Congress on Paraconsistency - May 08-12, 2000 WCP 3 - III world congress on paraconsistency , 28-31 July 2003 Logical Studies Journal, no. 2 (1999 Special Issue on Paraconsistent Logic and Paraconsistency The future of paraconsistent logic Reviews The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic Volume 9, Number 3, Sept. 2003. Articles of particular interest Beall, J.C. A Priestly Recipe for Explosive Curry Logical Studies Journal , no. 7, 2001. Metaphilosophical Pluralism and Paraconsistency: From Orientative to Multi-level Pluralism Adventures in the Paraconsistent Jungle , CLE e-Prints, Vol. 4(1), 2004 (Section Logic). From Paraconsistent Logic to Universal Logic Sorites , Issue #12, May 2001.

 12. IST DM Logic And Computation Seminar Among those, Paraconsistent logics are attractive in allowing for the consistency presupposition to be defeated and for a nonexplosive negation to behttp://sem.math.ist.utl.pt/clc/abstract.xml?who=João Marcos&when=Fri 08 A

13. Greg Restall * "Paraconsistency Everywhere"
Paraconsistent logics are, by definition, inconsistency tolerant In a In this way, intuitionistic predicate logic is, in a mild sense, Paraconsistent.
http://consequently.org/writing/pev/
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Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic . [Appeared in 2004]
Paraconsistent logics are, by definition, inconsistency tolerant inconsistency tolerant without thereby being contradiction tolerant . For example, even though no inconsistencies are tolerated by intuitionistic propositional logic, some inconsistencies are tolerated by intuitionistic predicate logic. In this way, intuitionistic predicate logic is, in a mild sense, paraconsistent. So too are orthologic and quantum propositional logic and other formal systems. Given this fact, a widespread view that traditional paraconsistent logics are especially repugnant because they countenance inconsistencies is undercut. Many well-understood nonclassical logics countenance inconsistencies as well. [This paper was published in 2004, despite the apparent date of 2002 in the citation. The tale is told in more detail here
Comments
I have posted a link to your paper in my blog. Hope it is ok for you.

14. Linear Logic - Relevant Logic
Translate this page Introduction to Linear Logic Tutorial a cura di T. Brauner. Restall s Bibliography of Relevant and Substructural logics. Paraconsistent Logic
http://lgxserver.uniba.it/lei/logica/lglin_lo.htm
 Related Pages Index HOME English HOME Italiano Linear / Relevant / Substructural / Paraconsistent Logics Research / Miscellaneous SRI-ICSL: Linear Logic Homepage Sito ufficiale sulla logica lineare, ricco di links di ogni genere Authors Index Autori di articoli sulla logica lineare Linear Logic Primer Contiene riferimenti ad articoli, indirizzi e-mail utili, ecc. Automated Reasoning Project Homepage Tutorials / Bibliographies Bibliography on Linear Logic and Related Subjects Curata da A.S. Troelstra e H. Schellinx, fa parte della Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies. Brief Introduction to Linear Logic Linear Logic Bibliographies Lista di bibliografie sull'argomento Introduction to Linear Logic Tutorial a cura di T. Brauner Restall's Bibliography of Relevant and Substructural Logics Paraconsistent Logic Dalla Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy Relevance Logic Dalla Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy Related Fields Non Classical Logics Automated Reasoning Logic and Philosophy Logic and Mathematics Logic and Computer Science General Resources SWIF Back to the Top Index HOME English ... HOME Italiano

15. Papers In Journals And Books, By Joao Marcos
Paraconsistent logics can have usual modal semantics, and in fact any On the search of maximal Paraconsistent fragments of classical logic.
http://www.geocities.com/jm_logica/Publications/index.htm
 Publications by Full papers On conferences Theses Preprints etc (as suggested by ACM) Ineffable inconsistencies Paraconsistency with no Frontiers , volume 4 of Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning , pp.301-311. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2006. (Preprint available at CLC A consistent logic and an inconsistent one can both be based on exactly the same set of formulas and the same single-conclusion consequence relation. This means trouble for the very definition of paraconsistency. Here is how you do the trick, and the way out of it. Referred at: Citeseer CSB Defining and using deduction systems with Isabelle (with and P. Gouveia In L. Magnani and R. Dossena, editors, Computing, Philosophy and Cognition , pp.271-293. London: College Publications, 2005. (Preprint available at CLC A crash course on implementing and experimenting with diverse deductive systems on Isabelle , a well-known generic theorem proving environment. Referred at: CSB Nearly every normal modal logic is paranormal Logique et Analyse Modal logic could be thought of as a theory of oppositions and negation operators. Instead of boxes and diamonds, one could base it on negations and related operators. Learn here how to do it. Abstracted or reviewed in: Zbl 1084.03015

16. Peter Suber, "Non-Standard Logics"
Paraconsistent logics can be lived if one vows to accept all truths, Paraconsistent logics do not hold that all paradoxes can be solved and urges
http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/courses/logsys/nonstbib.htm
 A Bibliography of Non-Standard Logics Peter Suber Philosophy Department Earlham College In the kinds of non-standard logics included, this bibliography aims for completeness, although it has not yet succeeded. In the coverage of any given non-standard logic, it does not at all aim for completeness. Instead it aims to include works suitable as introductions for those who are already familiar with standard first-order logic. Looking at these non-standard logics gives us an indirect, but usefully clear and comprehensive idea of the usually hazy notion of "standardness". In standard first-order logics: Wffs are finite in length (although there may be infinitely many of them). Rules of inference take only finitely many premises. There are only two truth-values, "truth" and "falsehood". Truth-values of given proposition symbols do not change within a given interpretation, only between or across interpretations. All propositional operators and connectives are truth-functional. "p ~p" is provable even if we do not have p or ~p separately; that is, the principle of excluded middle holds.

 17. Kristof De Clercq | Professional / Kristof De Clercq ÂParaconsistent logics and Wisniewski s Logic of QuestionsÂ. Lecture presented at the 11th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy ofhttp://logica.ugent.be/kristof/pmwiki/index.php?n=Professional.CurriculumVitae

 18. 1st World Congress And School On Universal Logic During the 20th century, numerous logics have been created intuitionistic logic, modal logic, manyvalued logic, relevant logic, Paraconsistent logic,http://www.uni-log.org/one2.html

19. Paraconsistency
It is claimed that various scientific and mathematical theories are in fact of this nature, and so can be logically analyzed by Paraconsistent logics,
http://www.philosophyprofessor.com/philosophies/paraconsistency.php
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paraconsistency
View that there are important paraconsistent logical theories; that is theories that do not allow (as classical logic does: see relevance logics ) that a contradiction has every proposition among its logical consequences. A system which contains contradictory proposition is inconsistent. But if it does not also contain every proposition (as it would for classical logic) it avoids being trivial. It is claimed that various scientific and mathematical theories are in fact of this nature, and so can be logically analyzed by paraconsistent logics, and also shown to be respectable as they stand (that is, we need not assume that the inconsistencies in them are merely aberrations that must be removed before they can be properly studied). Also see: dialetheism Source:
G Priest and R Routley and J Norman, eds, Paraconsistent Logic (1985)

20. Ofer Arieli - On Line Papers
Multiplevalued logics and Paraconsistent Reasoning Frontiers of Paraconsistent Logic, pages 11-27, Studies in Logic and Computation Vol.8,
http://www2.mta.ac.il/~oarieli/papers-by-subject.html
Incompleteness and Inconsistency in Knowledge-base Systems
Partial completeness in database systems Alvaro Cortes Calabuig, Marc Denecker Ofer Arieli , and Maurice Bruynooghe
Approximate query answering in locally complete databases
ps
pdf Alvaro Cortes Calabuig, Marc Denecker Ofer Arieli , and Maurice Bruynooghe
Representation of partial knowledge and query answering in locally complete databases
Proc. 13th Conf. on Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning (LPAR'06), LNCS 4246, pages 407-421, Springer, 2006. ps pdf Alvaro Cortes Calabuig, Marc Denecker Ofer Arieli Bert Van Nuffelen , and Maurice Bruynooghe
On the local closed-word assumption of data-sources
Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Logic Programming and Non-monotonic Reasoning ( LPNMR'05 ), LNAI 3662, pages 145-157, Springer, 2005. ps pdf Data integration and consistency restoration Ofer Arieli Marc Denecker , and Maurice Bruynooghe
Distance semantics for database repair
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence 50(3-4), pages 389-415, 2007. ps pdf Ofer Arieli Marc Denecker , and Maurice Bruynooghe
Distance-based repairs of databases.

 21. Schloss Dagstuhl : Seminar Homepage Belief Revision via Prime Implicates. John Slaney (Australian National UniversityCanberra). Remarks of Paraconsistent logics.http://www.dagstuhl.de/about-dagstuhl/searchbox/?catchword=03241

22. Nothing Of Consequence
Now of course, neither of these logics are Paraconsistent; Again, Priest s answer is that it depends on which Paraconsistent logic you look at.
http://notofcon.blogspot.com/
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Operational meaning and global meaning in sequent calculus
For those readers who have yet to look at the work in progress I posted some time back, I'm going to revisit a minor point I discuss in the paper. The philosophy of logic seminar in ArchÂ© spent some time this semester looking at papers on proof-theoretic semantics and harmony, one of which was a paper by Francesco Paoli , 'Quine and Slater on paraconsistency and deviance', Journal of Philosophical Logic, 32, 2003, pp. 531-548. The paper introduces an interesting semantic distinction in sequent calculus, devised to deal with a type of Quinean meaning-variance argument (see Quine 1986 2nd ed., pp. 80-83).
A bit of prefacing: The backdrop of Paoli's distinction is that sequent calculus is an appropriate proof-theoretic framework for logical inferentialism (the idea that logical constants have their meaning determined by the rules which govern their use). The traditional framework for inferentialism is arguably natural deduction, but it is increasingly popular to give something like a proof-theoretic semantics in sequent calculus in stead. No wonder, really, considering the huge importance of such calculi in proof-theory generally. In particular, it is in these systems most work on substructural logics and structural rules has been done (see the paper for more on this).
What sort of reasons could we have for disliking the move from natural deduction to sequent calculus. One common objection is that it takes us from a system close to natural reasoning to a system with several artificial features. Perhaps foremost among these so-called artificial features is that of multiple conclusion. Is there something like multiple conclusion logic in natural reasoning? That, I think, is an interesting question, and it has been given a positive answer by some authors (

23. Paraconsistent Logics - Indopedia, The Indological Knowledgebase
A Paraconsistent logic is a nontrivial logic which allows inconsistencies. More specifically, it allows both a statement and its negation to be asserted,
http://www.indopedia.org/Paraconsistent_logics.html
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Paraconsistent logics
Ã Â¤ÂÃ Â¥ÂÃ Â¤ÂÃ Â¤Â¾Ã Â¤Â¨Ã Â¤ÂÃ Â¥ÂÃ Â¤Â¶: - The Indological Knowledgebase A paraconsistent logic is a non-trivial logic which allows inconsistencies. More specifically, it allows both a statement and its negation to be asserted, without absurdity following. In standard logics, anything can be derived from an inconsistency; this is known as ex contradictione quodlibet (ECQ). A paraconsistent logic is then a logical system in which ECQ does not hold. Paraconsistent logic can be used in modelling belief systems which are inconsistent, and yet from which not anything can be inferred. In standard logics, care has to be taken to not allow such statements as the liar paradox to be formed; paraconsistent logics can be much simplified in that they do not have to excise such statements (though they still have to excise Curry's paradox ). Additionally, a paraconsistent logic can potentially overcome the limitation of arithmetic that GÃ¶del's incompleteness theorem implies, and be complete.

24. KAW-ARCHIVES: Re: (Paraconsistent) Logics For Multiple Sources Of Expertise
Re (Paraconsistent) logics for multiple sources of expertise. Stefan.Wrobel@gmd.de Mon, 04 Oct 93 102059 +0100. Messages sorted by date thread
http://hcs.science.uva.nl/mailing-lists/kaw/archives/0072.html
Re: (Paraconsistent) Logics for multiple sources of expertise
Stefan.Wrobel@gmd.de
Mon, 04 Oct 93 10:20:59 +0100

We are using a paraconsistent Generally Horn logic as the basis for our
KA and ML system Mobal, see for example
The system and further refs can be found on ftp.gmd.de, directory /MachineLearning/GMD/Mobal.
Ciao,
Stefan.
Stefan Wrobel
GMD (The German Natl. Research Center for Comp. Science)
FIT.KI
Schloss Birlinghoven, 53757 Sankt Augustin Fed. Rep. of Germany Tel.: 02241/14-0 Fax 02241/14-2889 EMail: wrobel@gmd.de

25. Paraconsistent Logic - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
A Paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal with contradictions in a discriminating way. Alternatively, Paraconsistent logic is the
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraconsistent_logic
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation search A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal with contradictions in a discriminating way. Alternatively, paraconsistent logic is the subfield of logic that is concerned with studying and developing paraconsistent (or "inconsistency-tolerant") systems of logic. (The term will be used in both ways in this article.) Inconsistency-tolerant logics have been around since at least 1910 (and arguably much earlier, for example in the writings of Aristotle ); however, the term paraconsistent ("beyond the consistent") was not coined until 1976, by the Peruvian philosopher Francisco MirÂ³ Quesada
edit Definition
In classical logic (as well as intuitionistic logic and most other logics), contradictions entail everything. This curious feature, known as the principle of explosion or ex contradictione sequitur quodlibet ("from a contradiction, anything follows"), can be expressed formally as

26. Paraconsistent Logic (Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy)
The development of Paraconsistent logic was initiated in order to challenge the logical principle that anything follows from contradictory premises,
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-paraconsistent/
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Paraconsistent Logic
First published Tue Sep 24, 1996; substantive revision Wed Nov 21, 2007 The development of paraconsistent logic was initiated in order to challenge the logical principle that anything follows from contradictory premises, ex contradictione quodlibet (ECQ) . Let be a relation of logical consequence, defined either semantically or proof-theoretically. Let us say that is explosive iff for every formula A and B A A B . Classical logic, intuitionistic logic, and most other standard logics are explosive. A logic is said to be paraconsistent iff its relation of logical consequence is not explosive. The modern history of paraconsistent logic is relatively short. Yet the subject has already been shown to be an important development in logic for many reasons. These involve the motivations for the subject, its philosophical implications and its applications. In the first half of this article, we will review some of these. In the second, we will give some idea of the basic technical constructions involved in paraconsistent logics. Further discussion can be found in the references given at the end of the article.
• Motivation and Applications
Inconsistent but Non-Trivial Theories
A most telling reason for paraconsistent logic is the fact that there are theories which are inconsistent but non-trivial. Clearly, once we admit the existence of such theories, their underlying logics must be paraconsistent. Examples of inconsistent but non-trivial theories are easy to produce. An example can be derived from the history of science. (In fact, many examples can be given from this area.) Consider Bohr's theory of the atom. According to this, an electron orbits the nucleus of the atom without radiating energy. However, according to Maxwell's equations, which formed an integral part of the theory, an electron which is accelerating in orbit must radiate energy. Hence Bohr's account of the behaviour of the atom was inconsistent. Yet, patently, not everything concerning the behavior of electrons was inferred from it. Hence, whatever inference mechanism it was that underlay it, this must have been paraconsistent.

27. WoPaLo - Workshop On Paraconsistent Logic - ESSLLI 2002
Workshop in Paraconsistent Logic, part of the 14th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information. Trento, Italy; 59 August 2002.
http://logica.rug.ac.be/WoPaLo/
 Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic as part of the 14th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information August 5Â9, 2002 Trento, Italy Contents Organizers Practical Information On Paraconsistency Call for Papers ... Contact Organizers Ghent University, RUG, Belgium State University of Campinas, Unicamp, Brazil Diderik Batens Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science Ghent University, RUG, Belgium Walter Alexandre Carnielli Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science Â CLE State University of Campinas, Unicamp, Brazil Practical Information From 5 to 16 August 2002, the 14th edition of the European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information ( ESSLLI 2002 ), will take place in Trento, Italy, organized under the auspices of the European Association for Logic, Language and Information ( FoLLI WoPaLo ), from 5 to 9 August 2002. The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for advanced Ph.D. students and other researchers to present and discuss their work in the area. As usual, there is not much financing available for workshop contributors and speakers, as the organizers of the ESSLLI 2002 want to keep the registration fee as low as possible, and be able to provide some grants to selected students. In view of this, we would all highly appreciate it if you can find alternative funding to cover travel and accomodation expenses during the workshop. All participants of the workshop are also expected to register for the summer school in due time, and all students are elligible for reduced registration fees.

 28. Paraconsistent Logic Programming Paraconsistent logic programming. Source, Theoretical Computer Science archive Volume 68 , Issue 2 (October 1989) table of contents. Pages 135 154http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=75499

29. Paraconsistent Logic In AI
Classical logic predicts that everything (thus nothing useful at all) follows from inconsistency. A Paraconsistent logic is a logic where an inconsistency
http://ruc.dk/~jv/para.html
Paraconsistent Logic in AI
JÃ¸rgen Villadsen Research Seminar 2004-09-16
Abstract
Classical logic predicts that everything (thus nothing useful at all) follows from inconsistency. A paraconsistent logic is a logic where an inconsistency does not lead to such an explosion, and since in practice consistency is difficult to achieve there are many potential applications of paraconsistent logics in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The talk gives an overview of the forthcoming presentations at the conferences Artificial Intelligence and Symbolic Computation AISC 2004 ) and Multiagent System Technologies MATES 2004 The first paper presents a concise description of a paraconsistent higher order logic with countably infinite indeterminacy. The meaning of the logical operators is different from traditional many-valued logics as well as from logics based on bilattices. Higher order logics are expressive and with several automated theorem provers available. The second paper argues that paraconsistent logic is advantageous in order to deal with assertions made by intelligent agents. Other propositional attitudes like knowledge and beliefs can in principle be treated along the same lines. A first order variant of the paraconsistent higher order logic is translated into classical predicate logic. Papers Slides

30. A Strong Model Of Paraconsistent Logic
The purpose of this paper is mainly to give a model of Paraconsistent logic satisfying the Frege comprehension scheme in which we can develop standard set
http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.ndjfl/1091030853
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A Strong Model of Paraconsistent Logic
Olivier Esser Source: Notre Dame J. Formal Logic Volume 44, Number 3 (2003), 149-156.
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is mainly to give a model of paraconsistent logic satisfying the "Frege comprehension scheme" in which we can develop standard set theory (and even much more as we shall see). This is the continuation of the work of Hinnion and Libert. Primary Subjects: Secondary Subjects: Keywords: paraconsistent logic; Frege's comprehension scheme; positive set theory; hyperuniverse Full-text: Access denied (no subscription detected) We're sorry, but we are unable to provide you with the full text of this article because we are not able to identify you as a subscriber. If you have a personal subscription to this journal, then please login. If you are already logged in, then you may need to update your profile to register your subscription. Read more about accessing full-text Alternatively, the document is available for a cost of \$20. Select the "buy article" button below to purchase this document from a secured VeriSign, Inc. site.

31. Paraconsistent Logic Page
This is a connected series of arguments concerning Paraconsistent logic. It is argued first that paraconsistency is an option worth pursuing in automated
http://users.rsise.anu.edu.au/~jks/paraconsistency.html
John Slaney
Relevant Logic and Paraconsistency This is the abstract of the paper: John Slaney.
Relevant Logic and Paraconsistency.
Bertossi, Hunter and Schaub (eds), Inconsistency Tolerance Springer, 2004. This is an account of the approach to paraconsistency associated with relevant logic. The logic fde of first degree entailments is shown to arise naturally out of the deeper concerns of relevant logic. The relationship between relevant logic and resolution, and especially the disjunctive syllogism, is then examined. The relevant refusal to validate these inferences is defended, and finally it is suggested that more needs to be done towards a satisfactory theory of when they may nonetheless safely be used.
A, Still Adorable
This is the abstract of the paper: Robert Meyer and John Slaney.
A, Still Adorable.
This paper expands on an earlier paper, "Abelian Logic (from A to Z)", by the same authors. The main result is that the Abelian logic A is rejection-complete; i.e., that each formula B is either a theorem of A or else leads in the style of Lukasiewicz to a proof of the variable p. Meredith's single axiom formulation is introduced for the implicational fragment of A and the finite model property proved. An interesting normal form is shown for A, using distribution laws not normally available to relevant logics.
Realistic Belief Revision
This is the abstract of the paper: Greg Restall and John Slaney.

 32. Paraconsistent Logic@Everything2.com A Paraconsistent logic is one in which inconsistent assertions can be tolerated in that unrelated assertions can be handled in a reliable fashion.http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1272179

33. ScienceDirect - Journal Of Applied Logic : A Paraconsistent Decagon
Measured by such standards, the Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic (WoPaLo),1 was a very successful meeting. The present volume intends to attest this,
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1570868304000485
 Athens/Institution Login Not Registered? User Name: Password: Remember me on this computer Forgotten password? Home Browse My Settings ... Help Quick Search Title, abstract, keywords Author e.g. j s smith Journal/book title Volume Issue Page Journal of Applied Logic Volume 3, Issue 1 , March 2005, Pages 1-5 A Paraconsistent Decagon, The Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic Abstract Full Text + Links PDF (64 K) Related Articles in ScienceDirect Aristotle's Thesis between paraconsistency and modaliza... Journal of Applied Logic Aristotle's Thesis between paraconsistency and modalization Journal of Applied Logic Volume 3, Issue 1 March 2005 Pages 119-131 Claudio Pizzi Abstract A A ) is inconsistent with the Law of Simplification ( A B B accepted by relevantists, but yields an inconsistent non-trivial extension of the system of entailment E . Such paraconsistent extensions of relevant logics have been studied by R. Routley, C. Mortensen and R. Brady. After examining the semantics associated to such systems, it is stressed that there are nonclassical treatments of relevance which do not support Simplification. The paper aims at showing that Aristotle's Thesis may receive a sense if the arrow is defined as strict implication endowed with the proviso that the clauses of the conditional have the same modal status, i.e. the same position in the Aristotelian square. It is so grasped, in different form, the basic idea of relevant logic that the clauses of a true conditional should have something in common. It is proved that thanks to such definition of the arrow Aristotle's Thesis subjoined to the minimal normal system

34. Workshop On Paraconsistent Logic
WORKSHOP ON Paraconsistent LOGIC http//logica.rug.ac.be/WoPaLo/ 14th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information http//www.esslli2002.it/
http://www.allconferences.com/conferences/20020207120249/
 Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic AllConferences.com Education Advanced Search Submit a Conference ... About Us See Also: Disabilities K-12 Languages Libraries ... Literacy Event Workshop on Paraconsistent Logic Begins August 5, 2002 Ends August 9, 2002 Papers May 15, 2002 Ab. WoPaLo Country Italy State City Trento Email wopalo_esslli2002@yahoo.com Category Education: Math_Education Category 2 Computers: Education Category 3 Science Exhibits N Organization Contact URL http://logica.rug.ac.be/WoPaLo/ Description WORKSHOP ON PARACONSISTENT LOGIC http://logica.rug.ac.be/WoPaLo/ 14th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information http://www.esslli2002.it/ August 5-16, 2002 Trento, Italy GENERAL INFORMATION: From 5 to 16 August 2002, the 14th edition of the European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI 2002), will take place in Trento, Italy, organized under the auspices of the European Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI). advanced Ph.D. students and other researchers to present and discuss their work in the area.

 35. JSTOR Paraconsistent Logic Essays On The Inconsistent 1990 Paraconsistent Logic Essays on the Inconsistent Philosophia Verlag, xxi+ 718 pp. (Hardback ISBN 388405-058-3). ROMAN TUZIAK University of Warwickhttp://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0007-0882(199303)44:1<167:PLEOTI>2.0.CO;2-Q

36. Science Links Japan | A Uniform Proof-theoretic Foundation For Paraconsistent Lo
Abstract;It is known that Paraconsistent logic programming, which is usually based upon a Paraconsistent logic, is important in dealing with
http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200618/000020061806A0574876.php
Sitemap Home Opinions Press Releases ... SIG-KBS(2006)
A uniform proof-theoretic foundation for paraconsistent logic programming (extended abstract)
Accession number; Title; A uniform proof-theoretic foundation for paraconsistent logic programming (extended abstract) Author; KAMIDE NORIHIRO(Aist) KAMIDE NORIHIRO(Tokyo National Coll. Of Technol.) Journal Title; SIG-KBS
Journal Code:
ISSN: VOL. NO. PAGE. REF.35 Pub. Country; Japan Language; English Abstract; BACK About J-EAST How to use List of Publications ... FAQ

37. Graham Priest Papers
Reductio ad Absurdum et Modus Tollendo Ponens in Paraconsistent Logic, G. Priest, . Frontiers of Paraconsistent Logic, Research Studies Press, 2000.
http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/academic/philosophy/gp-papers.html
 Graham Priest Papers 'The Conventionalist Philosophy of Mathematics', Proc. Bertrand Russell Memorial Logic Conference , Denmark l97l, eds. J. Bell et al , Leeds l973, pp. 115-l32. 'Gruesome Simplicity', Philosophy of Science 'Modality as a Metaconcept', Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic l976, XVII, 401-414. 'The Formalization of Ockham's Theory of Supposition' (with S. Read), Mind l977, LXXXVI, 109-113. 'A Refoundation of Modal Logic', Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic l977, XVIII, 340-354. 'Logic of Paradox', Journal of Philosophical Logic 'Indefinite Descriptions', Logique et Analyse 'A Note on the Sorites Paradox', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 'Two Dogmas of Quineanism', Philosophical Quarterly 'Sense, Entailment and Modus Ponens', Journal of Philosophical Logic 'Merely Confused Supposition' (with S. Read), Franciscan Studies XVIII, 'Ockham's Rejection of Ampliation' (with S. Read), Mind 'The Argument from Design', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 'The Logical Paradoxes and the Law of Excluded Middle', Philosophical Quarterly 'To be and not to be: Dialectical Tense Logic'

38. Journal Of Applied Non-Classical Logics, Volume 15
Volume 15, Number 1, 2005. Logical Approaches to Paraconsistency. J. Riche Decision Procedure of some Relevant logics A Constructive Perspective.
http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/journals/jancl/jancl15.html
Volume 15, Number 1, 2005
Logical Approaches to Paraconsistency
Volume 15, Number 3, 2005

 39. MATHnetBASE: Mathematics Online A taxonomy of Csystems; Paraconsistent classical logic; the logic of opposition; categorical consequence for Paraconsistent logic; ontological causes ofhttp://www.mathnetbase.com/ejournals/books/book_summary/toc.asp?id=3772

40. The Sharpener Â» Blog Archive Â» Brave New Logic
Far less wellknown is its eccentric younger cousin Paraconsistent logic. In most versions of this, the middle is again excluded, so each statement must be
http://www.thesharpener.net/2006/10/29/brave-new-logic/
 Libertarians, liberals, Marxists, greens: We can't even agree on a proper strapline home who are we? email links this month October 2006 M T W T F S S categories Admin Announcements Asides Links ... TV monthly archives December 2007 November 2007 October 2007 September 2007 ... home October 29th, 2006 Brave New Logic by Larry In classical formal logic, every statement is either true or false: those which are false are precisely those which are not true. In the early 20 th century however, constructivist intuitionistic logics in which some statements are true, others false, and the rest neither true nor false. Though at first glance this may seem more mystical than mathematical, many years later, intuitionism remains the focus of a reasonable amount of serious scientific and philosophical interest. Far less well-known is its eccentric younger cousin: paraconsistent logic. In most versions of this, the middle is again excluded, so each statement must be either true or false, but now some are allowed be both true and false. In all other systems this type of contradiction would spell immediate meltdown, but paraconsistent logic is built to cope with it: it is

41. Bulletin Of The IGPL, Volume 3,4
During the last two decades, we have been witnessing a growing interest as well as a remarkable activity in connection to Paraconsistent logic.
http://www.dcs.kcl.ac.uk/journals/igpl/IGPL/V3-4/
Contents
Back to the Bulletin Homepage.
HyperLaTeX .dvi Files
All .dvi files are complied with hyperlatex. If you use the xhdvi previewer then you can follow the internal and external links in the volume by just clicking the mouse.
The following file need to be copied to your local disc if you want to see all figures in the xdvi or xhdvi previewer or if you want to print .dvi files. It is not needed if you work with the PostScript files.
cover.eps

42. The Logical Fallacies: Logic Resources: Branches Of Logic
Most forms of logic assume consistency, that is if A is true, then Not A must be false. Paraconsistent logic denies this basic assumption.
http://www.onegoodmove.org/fallacy/branches.htm
 Prev Next Search: Logic Resources: Branches of Logic Once you are past the basic, you come to see that logic has many branches and flavours. Much of this is documented on the web. This page points you to sites devoted to some particular branch or another. Alternative Logic This is a term I coined to capture the various New Age logics which have emerged in recent years, the paradigm of which is deBono's Lateral Thinking. Logic On-Line - contains references to the G.O.S.N. and S.I.D.P.E. methodologies Deontic Logic This field of logic deals with permissions and obligations. It is typically used in the field of moral philosophy. Trying to teach it to computers is a bear. ;) Deontic Logic - a one-line glossary entry Deontic Logic - a short description Deontic Logic Relativised to Bearers and Counterparties - a short paper The Deontic Logic Group - just a title so far; pages under construction Second International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science - outline only Third International Workshop on Deontic Logic in Computer Science programme and call for papers Description Logic Description logics are languages tailored for expressing knowledge about concepts and concept hierarchies.

43. ESSAYS ON NON-CLASSICAL LOGIC
The problems addressed range from methodological issues in Paraconsistent and deontic logic to the revision theory of truth and infinite Turing machines.
http://www.worldscibooks.com/mathematics/4799.html
 Home Browse by Subject Bestsellers New Titles ... Browse all Subjects Search Bookshop New Titles Editor's Choice Bestsellers Book Series ... Advances in Logic - Vol. 1 ESSAYS ON NON-CLASSICAL LOGIC edited by Heinrich Wansing (Dresden University of Technology, Germany) This book covers a broad range of up-to-date issues in non-classical logic that are of interest not only to philosophical and mathematical logicians but also to computer scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence. The problems addressed range from methodological issues in paraconsistent and deontic logic to the revision theory of truth and infinite Turing machines. The book identifies a number of important current trends in contemporary non-classical logic. Among them are dialogical and substructural logic, the classification of concepts of negation, truthmaker theory, and mathematical and foundational aspects of modal and temporal logic. Contents: Fine-Grained Theories of Time (P Blackburn) Revision Sequences and Computers with an Infinite Amount of Time (B LÃ¶we) On Frege's Nightmare: A Combination of Intuitionistic, Free and Paraconsistent Logics (S Rahman)

44. Philosophy Program - La Trobe University
(With R. Routley) The NonTriviality of Extensional Dialectical Set Theory , in Paraconsistent Logic (ed. by G. Priest, R. Routley and J. Norman )
http://www.latrobe.edu.au/philosophy/rossb2.htm
Global Utilities Search: Global Navigation
Humanities and Social Sciences
Philosophy Program
La Trobe University
Victoria 3086
AUSTRALIA
Tel:
Fax:
Email: philosophy
@latrobe.edu.au
Dr Ross Brady
Publications Books
Universal Logic, CSLI Publs, Stanford, 360pp, 2006. Relevant Logics and Their Rivals, Vol.2: A Continuation of the Work of R. Sylvan, R.K. Meyer, V. Plumwood and R.T. Brady, ed. by R.T. Brady with contributions by M. Bunder, A. Fuhrmann, A. Logaric, E. Mares, C. Mortensen and A. Urquhart, Ashgate, Aldershot, 2003, 425pp. R. Routley, R.K. Meyer, V. Plumwood and R.T. Brady, Relevant Logics and Their Rivals, Vol.1, Ridgeview, California, 1982, pp. 460. (2002 and later)
"Extending Metacompleteness to Classical Systems", in E. Mares (ed.), From a Substructural Point of View , in honour of Robert Meyer, CSLI Publs, forthcoming. "Entailment Logic - A Blueprint", in W. Carnielli and J-Y. Beziau (eds.)

 45. University Of Chicago Press - Cookie Absent An inconsistency adaptive logic uses both classical logic and a Paraconsistent logic depending on context. This gives it the best of both worlds.http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/resolve?PHOS700314PDF

 46. Constructive Negations And Paraconsistency - Logic Journals, Books & Online Medi Constructive Negations and Paraconsistency Logic. This book presents the authorÂs recent investigations of the two main concepts of negation developed inhttp://www.springer.com/west/home/philosophy/logic?SGWID=4-40392-22-173780373-0

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