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1. A Weak Logic Of Knowledge And Belief: Epistemic And Doxastic Logic For The Yuppi
Modern modal Logic begins with the work of CI Lewis early on in the present century. We can think of Lewis thinking to himself as follows Well,

2. A Computationally Grounded Logic Of Knowledge, Belief And Certainty
This paper presents a Logic of knowledge, belief and certainty, which allows us to explicitly express the knowledge, belief and certainty of an agent.

3. A First-order Logic Of Knowledge And Belief With Identity. II.
Part I Scott K. Lehmann, A firstorder Logic of knowledge and belief with identity. I.. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, volume 17, issue 1, (1976), pp.
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4. Three Approaches To Knowledge And Belief
This section contrasts the approaches to knowledge and belief characteristic of philosophy, philosophical Logic and artificial intelligence.
Next: Reifying Context Up: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCELOGIC AND Previous: AbilityPractical Reason and
Three Approaches to Knowledge and Belief
Our robot will also have to reason about its own knowledge and that of other robots and people. This section contrasts the approaches to knowledge and belief characteristic of philosophy, philosophical logic and artificial intelligence. Knowledge and belief have long been studied in epistemology, philosophy of mind and in philosophical logic. Since about 1960, knowledge and belief have also been studied in AI. (Halpern 1986) and (Vardi 1988) contain recent work, mostly oriented to computer science including AI. It seems to me that philosophers have generally treated knowledge and belief as complete natural kinds . According to this view there is a fact to be discovered about what beliefs are. Moreover, once it is decided what the objects of belief are (e.g. sentences or propositions), the definitions of belief ought to determine for each such object p whether the person believes it or not. This last is the completeness mentioned above. Of course, only human and sometimes animal beliefs have mainly been considered. Philosophers have differed about whether machines can ever be said to have beliefs, but even those who admit the possibility of machine belief consider that what beliefs are is to be determined by examining human belief.

5. JSTOR Knowledge And Belief An Introduction To The Logic Of The
BOOK REVIEWS knowledge and belief AN INTRODUCTION TO THE Logic OF THE TWO NOTIONS. By JAAKKO HINTIKKA. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1962. Pp. x, 179.<381:KABAIT>2.0.CO;2-1

6. Oxford Journals | Mathematics & Physical Sciences | Journal Of Logic And Computa
Logical issues in Logic programming, knowledgebased systems and automated such as non-monotonic reasoning and systems of knowledge and belief;
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View Current Issue (Volume 17 Issue 6 December 2007) Advance Access Browse the Archive The Journal of Logic and Computation aims to promote the growth of logic and computing, including, among others, the following areas of interest: Logical Systems, such as classical and non-classical logic, constructive logic, categorical logic, modal logic, type theory, feasible maths.... Logical issues in logic programming, knowledge-based systems and automated reasoning; logical issues in knowledge representation, such as non-monotonic reasoning and systems of knowledge and belief; logics and semantics of programming; specification and verification of programs and systems; applications of logic in hardware and VLSI, natural language, cincurrent computation, planning, and databases. The bulk of the content is technical scientific papers, although letters, reviews, and discussions, as well as relevant conference reviews, are included. Search This Journal
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7. Truth, Reality, Reason, Philosophy, Essence, Logic, Fact, Knowledge, Understandi
Logic Fact Science knowledge Understanding Causality Being Ideals Religion belief, Republic. Would God willingly mask the truth behind appearance and
Causality Being Ideals Religion Belief Republic "

8. VFH - Hintikka: Knowledge And Belief
In 1962 Jaakko Hintikka published knowledge and belief. An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions with Cornell University Press.
An Introduction to the Logic
of the Two Notions JAAKKO HINTIKKA
P repared by
Vincent F. Hendricks
King's College Publications, 2005 Abstract


Abstract In 1962 Jaakko Hintikka published Knowledge and Belief. An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions with Cornell University Press. There has hardly been a paper or a book on epistemic and doxastic logic since not referring to this seminal treatise. Although everybody in logic, mainstream and formal epistemology, game-theory, economics, computer science and social software refer to the book it is very likely that a great many have never literally had their hands on it as it went out of print in the late 1960's (second printing in 1964, third printing in 1967 and fourth printing in 1969). It is our pleasure to provide the interdisciplinary community of logicians, epistemologists, game-theorists, computer scientists and other interested parties, with this new edition of Knowledge and Belief
This edition has not been revised, only extended. There are two with each other related reasons for the extended version. Firstly, albeit it is generally acknowledged that Jaakko Hintikka is one of the founding fathers of epistemic and doxastic logic, his fundamental epistemological ambition with developing these logics has generally been neglected by formal and mainstream epistemologists alike. Thus, the current edition has been extended with a separate introductory chapter showing how Hintikka from the outset has been engaged in a dialectic movement between epistemology and logic. Secondly, his movement has been going on for more than 40 years so this edition includes some of Hintikka's latest papers on the subject.

9. Knowledge Update, Belief Revision, Conditional Logic, Unawareness, Dynamic Logic
In this paper we purport to build a Logic for knowledge, awareness and probabilistic reasoning. We do so in both a nonstartegic and strategic setting,
LogicConnecting Stanford and ILLC
Update Modelling Seminar
Amsterdam, September 20, 2005
General Information
: P3.27, Plantage Muidergracht 24, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
This informal seminar on current research is open to everyone.
If you have any questions, please contact Fenrong Liu.
Floris Roelofsen: Modelling Explicit Information Only Tomasz Sadzik: Knowledge, Probable Reasoning and Unawareness Break Patrick Girard: From Onions to Broccoli: Generalizing Lewis's Counterfactual Logic Dynamic Logic and Probability Update
Speakers and Abstracts
Floris Roelofsen
ILLC, University of Amsterdam
In general, an epistemic model M may attribute more information to an agent A than can be captured by the object language L. M may contain two worlds, for example, which can be distinguished by A, even though they satisfy exactly the same formulas in L. So, given L, we can ask: which (L-dependent) properties of M assure that L is able to capture all the information modelled by M. I will give intuitive motivations and formal definitions of two such properties: tightness and saturation. Also, I will outline some applications of this idea. But I will leave its general relevance open to discussion.
Tomasz Sadzik
Stanford University
Patrick Girard
Stanford University
You can download the paper 'Onions to Broccoli: Generalizing Lewis's Counterfactual Logic' from here
Johan van Benthem
In my talk, I will state and review the relevant formal definitions, and then discuss the following issues:

Przymusinski proposed11 AELB, the autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and belief. The AELB Logic is a very powerful and expressive formal system which

11. Intersubjective Consistency Of Knowledge And Belief
belief closure A semantics of common knowledge for modal propositional Logic, Mathematical Social Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 127153, October.
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Intersubjective Consistency Of Knowledge And Belief
Author info Abstract Publisher info Download info ... Statistics Author Info Giacomo Bonanno
Klaus Nehring

Additional information is available for the following registered author(s): Abstract
We consider interactive epistemic models where individuals are described by both their "knowledge" and their "beliefs." Three intersubjective consistency conditions are examined: Intersubjective Caution (if an individual believes something to be common belief then he knows it to be common belief), Truth of Common Belief (only true facts are commonly believed) and Qualitative Agreement. These conditions are employed in characterizations of the following properties which describe either the extent of intersubjective truth and/or the logic of common belief: common belief in no error, common knowledge of common belief, negative introspection of common belief, coincidence of common knowledge and common belief, and collapse of individual belief and knowledge. We also discuss to what extent the three fundamental conditions can be viewed as intersubjective rationality conditions. Download Info To download: If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper

12. EPrintsUQ - A Computationally Grounded Logic Of Knowledge, Belief And Certainty
Su, Kaile and Sattar, Abdul and Governatori, Guido and Chen, Qingliang (2005) A Computationally Grounded Logic of knowledge, belief and Certainty.
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A Computationally Grounded Logic of Knowledge, Belief and Certainty
Su, Kaile and Sattar, Abdul and Governatori, Guido and Chen, Qingliang (2005) A Computationally Grounded Logic of Knowledge, Belief and Certainty. In 4th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems , 25-29 July, 2005, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Full text available as:
- Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader or other PDF viewer.
This paper presents a logic of knowledge, belief and certainty, which allows us to explicitly express the knowledge, belief and certainty of an agent. A computationally grounded model, called interpreted KBC systems, is given for interpreting this logic. The relationships between knowledge, belief and certainty are explored. In particular, certainty entails belief; and to the agent what it is certain of appears to be the knowledge. To formalize those agents that are able to introspect their own belief and certainty, we identify a subclass of interpreted KBC systems, called introspective KBC systems. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We show that the validity problem for the interpreted KBC systems is PSPACE-complete, and the same problem for introspective KBC systems is co-NP complete, thus no harder than that of the propositional logic. EPrint Type: Conference Paper Keywords: multi modal logics; agents; interpreted systems; belief; certainty; knowledge

13. Griffith University | Griffith Research Online | Details For Item "A Computation
Details for item A computationally grounded Logic of knowledge, belief and Title, A computationally grounded Logic of knowledge, belief and certainty
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There are no files associated with this record. Abbreviated Record Title A computationally grounded logic of knowledge, belief and certainty Author Su, Kaile
Sattar, Abdul
Governatori, Guido
Chen, Qingliang Publication Title Proceedingsof the Fourth International Joint Conference on autonomour Agents and Multiagent Systems. Editor Frank Dignum, Virginia Dignum, Sven Koenig, Sarit Kraus, Munindar P. Singh, Michael Wooldridge Year Published Publisher ACM Peer Reviewed Yes Published Yes Research Centre Institute for Integrated and Intelligent Systems Faculty Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology Publication Type Conference Publications (Full Written Paper - Refereed) Please use this identifier to cite this record:

14. Knowledge Contributors - Logic Journals, Books & Online Media | Springer
knowledge Contributors Logic. In the late 1950 s and early 1960 s seminal works on the Logic of knowledge and belief were published by notably von Wright

15. A Logic Of Knowledge And Belief For Recursive Modeling: A Preliminary Report
A Logic of knowledge and belief for Recursive Modeling A Preliminary Report. Piotr J. Gmytrasiewicz, Edmund H. Durfee. Journal Title National Conference

16. DBLP: Rohit Parikh
39, Rohit Parikh Propositions, Propositional Attitudes and belief Revision. 20, Rohit Parikh Logics of knowledge, Games and Dynamic Logic.
Rohit Parikh
List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server FAQ Coauthor Index - Ask others: ACM DL Guide CiteSeer CSB ... EE Rohit Parikh: Some Puzzles About Probability and Probabilistic Conditionals. LFCS 2007 EE Rohit Parikh: Logical omniscience and common knowledge: WHAT do we know and what do WE know? TARK 2005 EE Rohit Parikh, : Finite information logic. Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 134 EE Eric Pacuit , Rohit Parikh: The Logic of Communication Graphs. DALT 2004 EE Samir Chopra Eric Pacuit , Rohit Parikh: Knowledge-Theoretic Properties of Strategic Voting. JELIA 2004 EE Rohit Parikh, Ramaswamy Ramanujam : A Knowledge Based Semantics of Messages. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 EE Marc Pauly , Rohit Parikh: Editorial Introduction. Studia Logica 75 EE Marc Pauly , Rohit Parikh: Game Logic - An Overview. Studia Logica 75 EE Rohit Parikh: States of Knowledge. Electr. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci. 67 M. Angela Weiss , Rohit Parikh: Completeness of Certain Bimodal Logics for Subset Spaces. Studia Logica 71 Samir Chopra Konstantinos Georgatos , Rohit Parikh: Relevance Sensitive Non-Monotonic Inference on Belief Sequences. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 11 EE Rohit Parikh

17. Theories And Metaphors Of Cyberspace- Abstracts
On the other hand distributed systems can be modelled through multiagent modal Logic of knowledge and belief (Halpern and Moses 1992, Halpern 1986,
Theories and Metaphors of Cyberspace- Abstracts
By Paulo Camargo Silva
  • University of Erlangen-Nuernberg
  • Am Weichselgarten 9
  • D-91058 Erlangen
  • Germany
  • Abstract: DVWs structured throught FCMs can be modelled by multi-agent modal logic of knowledge and belief, since a DVW is a distributed system. In this article we present a multi-agent modal logic for knowledge and belief in which possible worlds are FCMs. This logic is able to structure distributed virtual worlds.
    • Stytz, M.R. [1994] - Virtual Reality - Research and development projects from the U.S. Government. Technical report of computer graphics lab air force institute of tecnology wright-patterson AFB, OH 45433.
    • Bricken, W. [1990] - Coordination of multiple participants in virtual space: preliminary notes. Technical report Human Interface Technology Laboratory, University of Washington.
    • Loffer, C.E. [1994] - Distributed Virtual Reality: applications for education, entertainment and industry. Report of STUDIO for creative inquiry Carnegie Mellon Universirty.
  • 18. Publication Search Results
    Israel, D. J. A Weak Logic of knowledge and belief Epistemic and Doxastic Logic for the Yuppie Generation, Technical Report 359. SRI, Menlo Park, Sep 1985.

    19. Knowledge And Belief: An Introduction To The Logic Of The Two Notions. - HINTIKK
    knowledge and belief An introduction to the Logic of the two notions.; HINTIKKA JAAKKO. Offered by Book Gallery, Jerusalem.
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    HINTIKKA JAAKKO Knowledge and Belief: An introduction to the logic of the two notions.
    New York: Cornell University,1964.220x145 x+179pp hard cover with DJ yellowing and damaged DJ else in good/fair condition. English .
    US$ 60.00 Offered by: Book Gallery, Jerusalem - Book number: V 1014 42
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    20. Knowledge, Belief, And Character:
    Can an agent’s belief constitute knowledge if its truth was in fact a matter of by its very Logic, attribute knowledge and justified belief whenever
    Knowledge, Belief, and Character: Readings in Virtue Epistemology Introduction I As is familiar to readers of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, the venerable Greek philosopher organized much of his philosophical thought around his understanding of two kind of human "excellence," ethike arete and dianoetike arete or the moral and intellectual virtues. Because of Aristotle’s emphasis on questions about what kinds of people we ought to be and what kinds of lives we ought to live, and his way of explaining his thoughts on these questions through discussions of arete his philosophical approach is typically described as "virtue theory." character of moral agents themselves. With the revival of interest in virtue theory, the ethical virtues and vices came to be seen as having more important roles to play, roles that make them valuable both for understanding the motivations underlying an agent’s actions, and for evaluating agents as praiseworthy or blameworthy. In the period since the revival of virtue ethics, ethical evaluation has come to focus to a greater extent on situated agents themselves, and the habits and dispositions that constitute their moral character. are a matter of debate, and part of the background that should concern us here.

    21. Knowledge Contributors Is Available From Books!
    In the late 1950 s and early 1960 s seminal works on the Logic of knowledge and belief were published by notably von Wright and Hintikka.......

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    Philosophy and Logic (Hardcover) Description: The aim of this thematically unified anthology is to track the history of epistemic logic, to consider some important applications of these logics of knowledge and belief in a variety of fields, and finally to discuss future directions of research. Table of Contents: Description: TS: engine(document); Home HD DVD's Blu-Ray DVDs Browse DVDs by Genre,

    22. Epistemic Logic For AI And Computer Science - Cambridge University
    Basics the modal approach to knowledge; 3. Various notions of knowledge and belief; 4. knowledge and ignorance; 5. Default reasoning by epistemic Logic;

    23. Belief, Knowledge, Revisions, And A Semantics Of Non-Monotonic Reasoning
    Przymusinski s Autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and belief is a unifying framework for various nonmonotonic formalisms.
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    24. A Class Of Stratified Programs In Autoepistemic Logic Of Knowledge
    dctitle, A Class of Stratified Programs in Autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and belief. rdftype, dblpInProceedings. rdftype, foafDocument

    25. British Library Direct: Order Details
    Logic of knowledge goes back to HintikkaÔÇÖs work knowledge and belief Hintikka, J. 1962, knowledge and belief An Introduction to the Logic of the Two
    This is an article from British Library Direct, a new service that allows you to search across 20,000 journals for free and order full text using your credit card. Article details Article title The Logic of Knowledge Based Obligation Author Pacuit, E. Parikh, R. Cogan, E. Journal title SYNTHESE -DORDRECHT- Bibliographic details 2006, VOL 149; NUMBER 2, pages 311-341 Publisher Springer Science + Business Media Country of publication Netherlands ISBN ISSN Language English Pricing To buy the full text of this article you pay:
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    26. Avoiding Omnidoxasticity In Logics Of Belief: A Reply To MacPherson - ECS EPrint
    Hintikka, J. {\em knowledge and belief An Introduction to the Logic. of the Two Notions}, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y., 1962.
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    Avoiding Omnidoxasticity in Logics of Belief: A Reply to MacPherson
    O'Hara, K., Reichgelt, H. and Shadbolt, N. (1995) Avoiding Omnidoxasticity in Logics of Belief: A Reply to MacPherson. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 36 (3). pp. 475-95.
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    Creators: Kieron O'Hara Han Reichgelt Nigel Shadbolt Item Type: Article Keywords: belief logics, artificial intelligence, omnidoxasticity, modal logic, epistemic logic, operational models of belief Research Group: Intelligence, Agents, Multimedia Deposited On: 04 Nov 2000 by O'Hara, Kieron ID Code: Last Modified: 16 Nov 2007 02:36 Performance Indicator: EZ~03~02~11
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    27. Knowledge And Belief, An Introduction To The Logic Of Two Notions. , Jaakko Hint
    knowledge and belief, an Introduction to the Logic of Two Notions. (Book) Hintikka, Jaakko. Publisher Information Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press,
    Knowledge and Belief, an Introduction to the Logic of Two Notions. (Book) Hintikka, Jaakko.
    Publisher Information: Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969. 8vo. Sunned on upper and fore edge of cover. DJ tanned on spine and upper and fore edge. Spine ends lightly bumped. Previous owner's name inked on ffep. Binding: Cloth Condition: Very Good in Very Good DJ ISBN: Book Id: Price: Add to Cart powered by Bibliopolis

    28. Powell's Books - Knowledge And Belief - An Introduction To The Logic Of The Two
    knowledge and belief An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions by Jaakko Hintikka Prepared by Vincent F. Hendricks John Symons In 1962 Jaakko

    29. A Class Of Stratified Programs In Autoepistemic Logic Of Knowledge
    A Class of Stratified Programs in Autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and belief. Resource URI http//

    30. What Is Teh Difference Between Knowledge And Belief?
    I´ ve showed my perspective using Logic, and reason, but you just said that faith . knowledge and belief work 50/50 of each other. Like I said before,
    What is teh difference between knowledge and belief?
    Text-only Version: Click HERE to see this thread with all of the graphics, features, and links. KMC Forums Community General Discussion Forum ... Philosophy Forum Biscuit is anything known for absolute certainty, beyond all doubt? can knowledge actually be proven? Shakyamunison The short answer is no.
    But we can get close Fishy No it can't nothing is certain... Except for yourself... You can be certain of yourself to some extent, the rest is a big unknown. Nothing can be proven. All that we can do is create theory's some more likely then others. Spelljammer Knowledge is knowing something.
    Belief is not knowing something, but under a very good impression that's the way it is.
    A Christian BELIEVES in God.
    A Christian KNOWS he's Christian.
    I BELEIVE fruit grows on other planets.
    I KNOW an apple is red.
    Get it? Nothing can be proven absolutely because first we need to define proof, and then prove something based on that definition of proof which you adopted. But you can never prove that a definition of proof is right because to prove it you will need another definition of proof.
    So knowledge is based on a definition of proof that we believe in without proving it.

    31. SSRN-Interactive Epistemology II: Probability By Robert Aumann
    Formal Interactive Epistemology deals with the Logic of knowledge and belief when there is more than one agent or player. One is interested not only in

    32. Syverson, Paul F.: Logic, Convention, And Common Knowledge
    3. Conventions 4. Common knowledge and Coordination 5. Conventional knowledge and belief 6. The Origins of Mutual Understanding 7. A Logic of Familiarity
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    Syverson, Paul F. Logic, Convention, and Common Knowledge A Conventionalist Account of Logic . Distributed for the Center for the Study of Language and Information. 166 p. 6 x 9 2002 Series: (CSLI-LN) Center for the Study of Language and Information - Lecture Notes Cloth $55.00sc ISBN: 978-1-57586-391-7 (ISBN-10: 1-57586-391-X) Fall 2002
    Paper $25.00sp ISBN: 978-1-57586-392-4 (ISBN-10: 1-57586-392-8) Fall 2002
    1. Conventionalism: Setting Out the Problem
    2. Games and Equilibria
    3. Conventions 4. Common Knowledge and Coordination 5. Conventional Knowledge and Belief 6. The Origins of Mutual Understanding 7. A Logic of Familiarity 8. Three Grades of Epistemic Involvement

    33. ODOBS - Publication Page: A Logic Of Knowledge And Belief For Reasoning About Co
    A Logic of knowledge and belief for Reasoning about Computer Security. Authors. Louise E. MOSER. Year, 1989. Booktitle, CSFW. Pages, 4763.;jsessionid=D0EC87830EC1B7

    34. Lorentz Center - Games, Action And Social Software From 30 Oct
    I analyze such situations using a Logic of knowledge and conditional beliefs, initially developed in order to incorporate an AGMtype belief-revision

    35. - Knowledge And Belief - An Introduction To The Logic Of The Two Notions
    knowledge and belief An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions Jaakko Hintikka ISBN 9781904987086 Book.
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    36. OTRSS/GO!/KnowBel
    The basic difference between knowledge and belief is that knowledge systems . a Game Rule of Aristotelian Logic; ALL PROPOSITIONS ARE TRUE IN SOME SENSE,
    OTRSS Home/BLog SkeptiCon GO! ... t'CotO
    KNOWLEDGE vs. BELIEF - Is That A System, Or Game, Or What?!? by Ric Carter
    B ABSTRACT: Certain human belief systems (political, religious, economic, athletic, artistic, etc) are GAMES that are designed for or evolved as ENTERTAINMENT , to structure and occupy otherwise unproductive time. Such GAMES have arbitrary rules, and tend to schism and diverge, and to encourage enthusiastic and/or violent behaviours in their players.
  • Statements included herein may be subject to any and/or all of these PHILOSOPHICAL WARNINGS . (click for details)
  • Statements included herein, rather than being simply true or false , may more properly be evaluated as some combination of: maybe (true and/or false and/or unknowable and/or trivial and/or irrelevant)
  • Opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the author or of anyone known to him.
  • Some restrictions may apply to statements included herein.
  • Caveat lector, caveat emptor.
    Facts do not penetrate the world of our beliefs. They haven't generated them; they don't destroy them. They can inflict the most constant contradictions upon them without weakening them.
    Human Intellectual Activity
    H uman intellectual activity can be generally characterized as taking place within 1) belief systems knowledge systems , or 3) non-systemic frivolity . I won't deal with the latter here, no matter that it's a lot of fun. The first two will keep me busy enough.
  • 37. Ralph Slaght Teaches Difference Between Knowledge And Belief
    Ralph Slaght reviews steps to solve a problem in Logic with Elizabeth Cassidy 05, . Publications Is Justified True belief knowledge?
    Ralph Slaght Teaches Difference between Knowledge and Belief
    Professor is retiring after 34 years.
    Ralph Slaght reviews steps to solve a problem in logic with Elizabeth Cassidy '05, history and government major. EASTON, Pa.( ), February 13, 2003 — "What is knowledge? And what does it mean to know something?" asks Ralph Slaght, Hogg Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. "It is difficult to define the concept. Most people say they know something, but it's really a belief." Students in his Philosophical Analysis course write a paper a week, learning to read an article or book critically, extract and evaluate the key arguments, and write cogent comments. "Often there are inconsistent beliefs" in an article, he says, asking the students, "Can you prove the validity of the argument?" These critical thinking and evaluation skills are useful in any discipline.
    Slaght studies philosophical questions such as the difference between knowledge and belief. An early adopter of technology, he taught himself computer programming. "I was teaching logic when I learned of a computer program to help students," says Slaght. "I got a copy of the program, which was too advanced to run on Lafayette's computer at the time. I thought, 'I can learn this stuff,' and taught myself programming." When Lafayette President David Ellis wanted to increase the use of computers in the humanities, he asked Slaght to help. "He was essentially paying me to learn to do something I'd enjoy anyway," says Slaght, who went on to direct the academic computing center for a year while a search was underway for a permanent director. He was also one of three faculty who developed the proposal to create a computer science major, which was controversial at that time.

    38. Modern China -- Sign In Page
    Distinguishing Truth, knowledge, and belief . 152278 in Tarski, Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics Papers from 1923 to 1938. Ed. John Corcoran.
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    Distinguishing Truth, Knowledge, and Belief: A Philosophical Contribution to the...
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    39. AI Group Research Topics
    Before the start of the 20th century, Logic as a research field had its home epistemic Logic (the Logic of knowledge), and belief and knowledge change.
    Defeasible Reasoning AI Research Group Department of Computer Science
    Applied Logic
    A consequence of the association between logic and computing, and particularly the association between logic and artificial intelligence, has been an evolution in the way logic is perceived. A century ago, logic was held to be about proofs. Half a century ago, logic was held to be about truth. Now the notions of proof and truth have been assimilated into a larger picture, for logic is known to be about agents: an agent's information about a system may be represented either model-theoretically or sententially, and theorem-proving algorithms simulate consequence relations representing the conclusions agents may rationally draw from the information at their disposal. A century ago, logic was assumed to involve a single formal language in which all statements of interest could be expressed, and to have a single intended interpretation, namely the universe. Now logic is known to involve purpose-built formal languages designed to permit the representation of knowledge about specific systems, and our frequent inability to reduce the class of models to a single member (incompleteness) is taken for granted as merely a reflection of the differences in expressiveness between object language and metalanguage, whereas earlier such results were regarded as surprising and philosophically significant. A century ago, logic was thought to be about the formalisation only of arguments that were universally valid, and indeed this constituted the principle grounds for criticism of the notion of induction by Hume and Popper. Now logic is known to enable the formalisation of defeasible reasoning, in which the evidence supports conclusions only tentatively, and the legitimacy of basing hypotheses on experimental results has been re-established.

    40. Belief And Knowledge—a Plea About Language - Physics Today January
    belief and knowledge. For most people a belief is an article of faith, a chain of Logic and inference supported by cumulative but not direct evidence.
    document.writeln(AAMB7); advanced
    ADVERTISING JOBS ... Post jobs Reference Frame
    Helen Quinn
    Helen Quinn I remember None of these words has a unique physics meaning, but their meanings as we use them among ourselves and as nonscientists hear them are very different. We need to be much more careful how and when we use them in talking to the public.
    Belief and knowledge
    Hypothesis, model, and theory
    Particle physicists look for data that do not fit standard-model predictions. They suspect this theory needs extension and want evidence of what direction to look for that extension. Whatever they learn will not cause quarks and gluons to be discarded. Geneticists are perhaps revamping the early stages of the tree of life into a more complex set of interconnections, but the later branching that is well established will not be invalidated by any such development. Theory evolves and changes, but the change is rarely revolutionary. Even the truly new developments such as quantum physics or relativity do not completely replace what was known; they just delimit its domain of applicability. The science press and scientists themselves do science a disservice when they seek to dramatize a discovery by emphasizing that it discredits a previous theory. Such coverage typically does not discuss whether the earlier theory was tentative or whether the new result modifies a well-established but incomplete theory. This dramatization feeds the popular image that all scientific knowledge is tentative. Much is tentative, but much is well understood and unlikely to be discredited. We scientists need to convey more about the status of our knowledge than can be learned from the muddy "most scientists believe" statement. We need our listeners to know what is tentative and what is not so that they understand better the ragged but cumulative progression of science and can use current knowledge effectively, with an understanding of its inherent uncertainties, in personal and political decision making.

    41. Knowledge And Belief: An Introduction To The Logic Of The Two Notions:9781904987
    knowledge and belief An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions1904987087Hintikka, Jaakko; Hendricks, Vincent F.; Symons, John for $29.70 at
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    42. A Logic Of Implicit And Explicit Belief
    A Logic of Implicit and Explicit belief. Hector J. Levesque. As part of an ongoing project to understand the foundations of knowledge Representation,
    A Logic of Implicit and Explicit Belief
    Hector J. Levesque As part of an on-going project to understand the foundations of Knowledge Representation, we are attempting to characterize a kind of belief that forms a more appropriate basis for Knowledge Representation systems than that captured by the usual possible-world formalizations begun by Hintikka. In this paper, we point out deficiencies in current semantic treatments of knowledge and belief (including recent syntactic approaches) and suggest a new analysis in the form of a logic that avoids these shortcomings and is also more viable computationally.

    The surprising thing is that this passage between belief and knowledge . The pass will have to report on the Logic of this thought which was there where
    From Psychoanalytical Notebooks 3, 1999 : Love THE PASS BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF Pierre-Gilles Gueguen Among the responsibilities which fall to the analyst, there is a special one which falls to the School and its analysts: that of keeping the pass alive, and making of it something which is lived [ faire vivre la passe ]. Lacan’s wish, as formulated explicitly in Note italienne , was that analysts should testify to the importance they attach to their belief in the unconscious, and that they should be recruited on that basis. Under the impulsion of Jacques-Alain Miller, we have hence created the School of the Pass. This responsibility, once formulated, has appeared in our orientation as an ethical duty. I will choose to comment upon this duty from two practices: that of the passant who strives towards a speaking well [ bien dire ] that conforms to (this) ethics, and that of the analyst of the cartel of the pass, who searches to discern in the testimony the right angle under which the articulation of the discourse of the patient to the experience of the real manifests itself. To tell the truth, this is not limiting, for each one of us who claims to analyse themselves, is concerned with the belief in the unconscious linked to one’s practical experience of it. Let us begin with the analysand in the procedure of the pass. He testifies to a relation with what we call an ‘unconscious knowledge’. It is even on the basis of this knowledge, acquired from one’s own analysis, that he attempts to make the Cartel perceive the trajectory of his treatment, and how he has been able to touch the real. As always, in analysis, two points are essential in this testimony: the beginning and the end of the analysis. They determine a course in which the history of the analysand, in its signifying determinations, has been taken up and reshaped.

    44. ...
    knowledge and belief An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions. Authors Jaakko Hintikka, Vincent F. Hendricks, John Symons. List Price $22.00

    45. SFU Philosophy: Courses
    An examination of one or more topics such as philosophical Logic; deontic Logic; the Logic of knowledge and belief; the Logic of preference; tense Logics;
    Philosophy people research courses ... resources
    SFU Philosophy
    Below you will find the courses offered by the Philosophy Department in the Spring 2008 term, along with their Calendar descriptions. By clicking on the appropriate link you will be taken to the course outline. Courses marked [CLA] may be used for credit for a Certificate of Liberal Arts. The W notation indicates that this is a writing course. The website will be updated as the outlines become available. 100-level 200-level 300-level 400-level ... Graduate Courses 100-Level PHIL XX1 Critical Thinking DAY [CLA]
    An introduction to the evaluation of arguments as they are encountered in everyday life. The central aim will be to sharpen skills of reasoning and argumentation by understanding how arguments work and learning to distinguish those which actually prove what they set out to show from those which do not. Open to all students. Quantitative PHIL 100 Knowledge and Reality DAY [CLA] [W]
    An introduction to some of the central problems of philosophy. Topics to be discussed include the different theories of reality; the nature and sources of knowledge, truth, evidence, and reason; the justification of belief and knowledge about the universe. These topics and problems will be considered as they arise in the context of issues such as: relativism versus absolutism; the existence of God; personal identity; the nature of the mind and its relation to the body; freewill and determinism; the possibility of moral knowledge. Open to all students. Writing/Breadth - Humanities.

    46. Home Page Of Dr. Jianhua Chen
    J. Chen, A Class of Stratified Programs in Autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and belief, Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Methodologies for
    Jianhua Chen
    Computer Science Department Louisiana State University Baton Rouge LA 70803-4020 Phone: (225) 578-4340 Fax: (225) 578-1465 E-mail:
    link to my CV
    Research Interests
    • Machine Learning and Data Mining, Data Clustering Applications of Machine Learning for Security
      Web Mining and Ontology Construction
      Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Systems Intelligent Information Retrieval and Interactive Systems Knowledge Representation, Logics in AI, Non-monotonic reasoning
    Courses Taught
    • CSC3102 (Advanced Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis) link to the class website
      CSC4402 (Introduction to Database Systems) link to the class website
      CSC7333 (Machine Learning) CSC7442 (Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery from Databases)
      CSC7700 (Special Topics in Computer Science) CSC7999 (Independent Study) CSC9000 (Dissertation Research) SYSC7090 (System Science Design Project) SYSC8000 (System Science Thesis Research)
    Selected Journal Publications
    • Patrick McDowell, Brian Bourgeois, Pamela J. McDowell, S.S. Iyengar and Jianhua Chen . Relative Positioning for Team Robot Navigation. To Appear: Autonomous Robots
      S. Seiden, P. Chen, R. Lax, J. Chen, G. Ding.

    47. 03Bxx
    03B40 Combinatory Logic and lambdacalculus See also 68N18; 03B42 Logic of knowledge and belief; 03B44 Temporal Logic; 03B45 Modal Logic {For
    Home MathSciNet Journals Books ...
    Contact Us
    201 Charles Street
    Providence, RI 02904
    USA Phone: 401-455-4000
    or 800-321-4AMS Or email us at Open Positions
    General logic
    • 03B05 Classical propositional logic 03B10 Classical first-order logic 03B15 Higher-order logic and type theory 03B20 Subsystems of classical logic (including intuitionistic logic) 03B22 Abstract deductive systems 03B25 Decidability of theories and sets of sentences [See also 03B30 Foundations of classical theories (including reverse mathematics) [See also 03B35 Mechanization of proofs and logical operations [See also 03B40 Combinatory logic and lambda-calculus [See also 03B42 Logic of knowledge and belief 03B44 Temporal logic ; for temporal logic see ; for provability logic see also 03B48 Probability and inductive logic [See also 03B50 Many-valued logic 03B52 Fuzzy logic; logic of vagueness [See also 03B53 Logics admitting inconsistency (paraconsistent logics, discussive logics, etc.) 03B55 Intermediate logics 03B60 Other nonclassical logic 03B65 Logic of natural languages [See also 03B70 Logic in computer science [See also 68-xx 03B80 Other applications of logic 03B99 None of the above, but in this section

    48. Buyback Prices On 1904987087: Knowledge And Belief - An Introduction To The Logi
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    49. IngentaConnect Autoepistemic Logic Of Knowledge And Beliefs
    The new formalism, called the Autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and Beliefs, AELB, is obtained by augmenting Moore s autoepistemic Logic, AEL,
    var tcdacmd="dt";

    50. Epistemic Logic - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
    Epistemic Logic also deals with belief, not just knowledge. The basic modal operator is usually written B instead of K. In this case though, the knowledge
    var wgNotice = ""; var wgNoticeLocal = ""; var wgNoticeLang = "en"; var wgNoticeProject = "wikipedia";
    Epistemic logic
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to: navigation search Epistemic logic is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about knowledge . While epistemology has a long philosophical tradition dating back to Ancient Greece , epistemic logic is a much more recent development with applications in many fields, including philosophy theoretical computer science artificial intelligence economics and linguistics . While philosophers since Aristotle have discussed modal logic, and Medieval philosophers such as Ockham and Duns Scotus developed many of their observations, it was C.I. Lewis who created the first symbolic and systematic approach to the topic, in 1912. It continued to mature as a field, reaching its modern form in 1963 with the work of Kripke Many papers were written in the fifties that spoke of a logic of knowledge in passing, but it was von Wright 's paper An Essay in Modal Logic from 1951 that is seen as a founding document. It was not until 1962 that another Finn

    51. Knowledge, Games And Beliefs: Seminar
    6/12/04 Workshop on New Results in Logics of knowledge and Beliefs . 6/10/04 Samer Salame, GC, First order classical modal Logic. 5/5/04 Noson Yanofsky,
    Knowledge, Games and Beliefs Group: Weekly Seminar
    City University of New York, Graduate Center Home Members Publications Links ... Library The KGB group conducts a weekly seminar series consisting of expository talks, discussions of current research and presentations by visiting scholars. To receive email notifications, send an email to Samer Salame Usual Meeting Place: 4-421 GC
    Usual Meeting Time: Thursday, 2 - 4 Next Meeting Speaker: Eva Cogan (Brooklyn College) Meeting Date: Thursday August 17, 2006 Meeting Time : 2 PM-3:30 PM Meeting Place : GC CUNY Room Title: Argumentation Based Dialogues for CARREL Agents Abstract:
    A huge percentage of donor organs are discarded because suitable
    recipients aren't located in time. Ulises d
    ``An Agent Mediated Institution for the Exchange of Human Tissues
    among Hospitals for Transplantation" to improve the speed and the quality
    of the matches. Components within such multi-agent systems require
    mechanisms by which they can communicate. For resolving some of the conflicts in
    CARREL, it is especially

    52. Objective Knowledge By Karl Popper
    Objective knowledge. A Realist View of Logic, Physics, and History (1966) because I do not want to put beliefs into Logic, for wellknown reasons.
    Karl Popper (1966)
    Objective Knowledge
    A Realist View of Logic, Physics, and History (1966)
    Source Objective Knowledge (1972) publ. Clarendon Press. The second last chapter is reproduced here. Thus, we have not made our world. So far we have not even changed it much, compared with the changes achieved by animals and plants. Yet we have created a new kind of product or artefact which promises in time to work changes in our corner of the world as great as those worked by our predecessors, the oxygen-producing plants, or the island-building corals. These new products, which are decidedly of our own making, are our myths, our ideas, and especially our scientific theories: theories about the world we live in. I suggest that we may look upon these myths, these ideas and theories, as some of the most characteristic products of human activity. Like tools, they are organs evolving outside our skins. They are exosomatic artefacts. Thus we may count among these characteristic products especially what is called 'human knowledge'; where we take the word 'knowledge' in the objective or impersonal sense, in which it may be said to be contained in a book; or stored in a library; or taught in a university. When referring to human knowledge, I shall usually have this objective sense of the word 'knowledge' in mind. This allows us to think of knowledge produced by men as analogous to the honey produced by bees: the honey is made by bees, stored by bees, and consumed by bees; and the individual bee which consumes honey will not, in general, consume only the bit it has produced itself: honey is also consumed by the drones which have not produced any at all (not to mention that stored treasure of honey which the bees may lose to bears or beekeepers). It is also interesting to note that, in order to keep up its powers to produce more honey, each working bee has to consume honey, some of it usually produced by other bees.

    53. Resolution Based Theorem Proving For Temporal Logics Of Knowledge And Belief Wit
    The first involves a translation into a combination of the branchingtime temporal Logic (CTL) with knowledge or belief. The second requires direct
    Resolution Based Theorem Proving for Temporal Logics of Knowledge and Belief with Interactions-Final Report Summary
    The project involved the development of proof methods for combined temporal and modal logics which are useful for specifying and verifying complex systems such as multi-agent systems, security protocols and knowledge games. In particular, the focus of the project was on developing proof methods for the combination of propositional linear-time temporal logic with the modal logic S5 to represent knowledge, and allowing interaction between the modal and temporal components. Work on temporal logic and verification is widespread, both within the UK and internationally. The work of this project is well known internationally, and members of the research team have been centrally involved in the development of the field of temporal logic during the period of this project. For example, Clare Dixon was local organisation co-chair in 2002 of the TIME International Symposium of Temporal Representation and Reasoning, the only regular international event concerning temporal reasoning. Clare was one of four editors of a Special Issue on Temporal Representation and Reasoning of the Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence journal in 2001 [ ] and is currently co-editing a special issue of the Journal of Logic and Computation related to time in Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence and Databases.

    54. Abstract
    This article contains an extensive survey of the Autoepistemic Logic of knowledge and Beliefs, AELB, a simple and yet powerful nonmonotonic knowledge

    55. Ron Van Der Meyden
    ARC Small Grant 2000 Compositional Abstraction for model checking distributed systems designs using the Logic of knowledge and time.
    Ron van der Meyden
    Associate Professor
    (Professor from Jan 2008)
    School of Computer Science and Engineering,

    University of New South Wales
    Sydney 2052,
    email: last word of my name, at
    phone: +61 2 8306 0460
    fax: +61 2 8306 0405
    Snail Mail: Locked Bag 6016, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 1466, Australia
    Office Location: 223 Anzac Parade, Kensington, NSW 2052, at L5 on the UNSW Kensington map (visitors: proceed to NICTA reception on Level 4)
    • MCK a model checker for the logic of knowledge
    • UTS Large Internal Research Grant 1996: Computational Analysis of Knowledge Theory for Distributed Systems Design and Analysis
    • ARC Large Grant 1997-1999: Knowledge-Based Programming of Distributed Systems: From Specification to Implementation
    • UTS Internal Research Grant, 1998: Logics of Belief for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis
    • ARC Large Grant 2000-2002: Proof Theory for Extensions of Temporal Logic (with Mark Reynolds, Murdoch).
    • ARC Small Grant 2000: Compositional Abstraction for model checking distributed systems designs using the logic of knowledge and time. (with Kai Engelhardt)

    56. ScienceDirect - Journal Of Applied Logic : A Consistency-based Framework For Mer
    Journal of Applied Logic Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2007, Pages 459477 the various knowledge bases, belief sources, etc. in distinct languages,
    Athens/Institution Login Not Registered? User Name: Password: Remember me on this computer Forgotten password? Home Browse My Settings ... Help Quick Search Title, abstract, keywords Author e.g. j s smith Journal/book title Volume Issue Page Journal of Applied Logic
    Volume 5, Issue 3
    , September 2007, Pages 459-477
    Selected papers from the 9th European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence (JELIA '04), 9th European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence
    Full Text + Links PDF (242 K) Related Articles in ScienceDirect A consistency based approach for belief change
    Artificial Intelligence

    A consistency based approach for belief change
    Artificial Intelligence Volume 151, Issues 1-2 December 2003 Pages 1-41
    James P. Delgrande and Torsten Schaub
    This paper presents a general, consistency-based framework for expressing belief change. The framework has good formal properties while being well-suited for implementation. For belief revision, informally, in revising a knowledge base K K as consistently possible. This is done by expressing

    57. Halpern
    Should knowledge entail belief? Journal of Philosophical Logic, 255, pp. 483494, October 1996. Common knowledge now you have it, now you don t.
    Joseph Y. Halpern
    Co-director, Cognitive Studies Program

    Ph.D. Harvard, 1981
    My research is concerned with representing and reasoning about knowledge and uncertainty in multi-agent systems. The work uses tools from logic (particularly modal logic and the idea of possible-worlds semantics), probability theory, distributed systems, game theory, and AI, and I like to think that it contributes to our understanding of these areas as well. Some themes of my current research include: (1) defining useful notions of explanation in probabilistic systems, (2) providing foundations for useful qualitative notions of decision theory, and (3) applying ideas of decision theory to constructing algorithms in asynchronous distributed systems. Awards 1997 Gödel Prize University Activities Co-director: Cognitive Studies Program Professional Activitie s Fellow: American Association of Artificial Intelligence
    Editor-in-chief: Journal of the ACM
    Consulting Editor: Chicago Journal of Computer Science
    Editorial Board: Artificial Intelligence Journal, Information and Computation, Journal of Logic and Computation

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